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http://www.cyclingpromotion.com.au/images/stories/factsheets/Power_Assisted_Bicycles_Final_Report_Monash_Uni.pdf

WORKING PAPER
ITS-WP-03-19
ENCOURAGING E-BIKE
USE : THE NEED FOR
REGULATORY REFORM
IN AUSTRALIA
by
Geoff Rose
Peter Cock
22 December 2003
ISSN 1440-3501
INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORT STUDIES
The Australian Key Centre in Transport Management


Department of Civil Engineering
Building 60
Monash University Vic 3800
Established and supported under the Australian Research Council’s Key Centre Program
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
Number:
Title:
Working Paper ITS-WP-03018
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in
Australia
Authors: This report is based, in part, on research undertaken by James
Belias, Pyrou Chung, James Macdonald and Adam Smith as part
of their studies at Monash University. The report has been
compiled by Geoff Rose and Peter Cock who were the
supervisors of the student’s projects and it draws material from
the original student reports.
Contact: Associate Professor Geoff Rose
Director
Institute of Transport Studies (Monash)
The Australian Key Centre in Transport Management
Department of Civil Engineering
Building 60
Monash University, VIC, 3800
Tel. No. (03) 9905 4959
Fax. No. (03) 9905 4944
Email: Geoff.Rose@eng.monash.edu.au
Date: 22 December 2003
Abstract: This report examines the regulation of power assisted bicycles in
Australia and overseas. The current regulations are reviewed and
reasons for revising the regulations in Australia are outlined.
Recommendations are made on key features for revised
regulations.
Keywords: Power assisted bicycles, powered bicycles, vehicle standards,
regulations, sustainable mobility
i
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Institute of Transport Studies and the Graduate School of Environmental Science at
Monash University have initiated a collaborative research program focussed on power
assisted bicycles, with a particular emphasis on those powered by electricity. The research,
which has received initial support from the Cycling Promotion Fund and Giant Bicycles,
has been progressed through a series of student projects in 2003. This report is based on the
work undertaken in those initial student projects.
This research was initiated to provide a contribution to the debate about the regulation of
power assisted bicycles in Australia. The aims of the research were to:
• investigate the current situation relating to power assisted bicycles in Australia and
comparable overseas countries,
• explore the issues of relevance to the framing of regulations covering these vehicles,
and
• identify any actions needed to enable these vehicles to make a larger contribution to
the urban transport task.
Current Situation
The Australian Vehicle Standards do not apply to vehicles propelled by a motor with a
maximum power output of less than 200W. Bicycles and scooters meeting this power limit
are therefore able to be ridden on public roads without a licence. The Regulations
governing the use of vehicles meeting this power limit vary across Australian states. In
Victoria, vehicles with a motor less than 200W are classified as a bicycle and therefore
subject to bicycle regulations.
It is important to distinguish between whether power assistance is only provided when the
rider is pedalling (technically termed Power Assisted Bicycles or PAB’s) as opposed to
Powered Bicycles (PB’s) which operate with a throttle and so can provide power assistance
without any pedal action. The term E-Bike is used to distinguish electric PAB’s from those
powered by internal combustion engines (IC-PBs or IC-PABs). The lack of any distinction
between powered scooters and bicycles has increased interest in powered scooters since
riders do not require a licence and the vehicle does not need to be registered. The powered
scooters which are being sold and operated as bicycles clearly require no pedal assistance
and could not therefore be classified as PAB’s. It is more difficult to mechanically govern
the output of scooters powered by internal combustion engines and some being ridden on
public roads have maximum speeds above 40 kph. Powered scooters produce considerable
noise impacts, against which greater community opposition can be expected, and the twostroke
internal combustion engines which are common on many models perform very
poorly in terms of air pollution.
Overseas there has been significant development of E-Bikes or electric bikes with Canada,
the EU and the USA recently amending regulations to facilitate greater use of these
vehicles. Those countries now allow higher power limits than in Australia. Canadian
Legislation (amended late 2002) specifies a maximum power output of 500W, maximum
assisted speed of 32kph, and a stipulation that the motor not be engaged until a speed of
3kph is attained. The US Legislation (amended May, 2003) specifies a 750W power limit,
ii
a 20mph (32kph) assisted speed limit and functioning pedals. Finally, the EU Legislation
(amended May 2003) stipulates that E-Bikes must have a maximum continuous power
output of no more than 250W, that this assistance progressively decreases to nil at 25kph,
or as soon as the cyclist stops pedalling.
Feedback from the bicycle industry suggests that existing users of PBs and PABs in
Australia are predominantly males aged over 50 years. It is likely that these older riders
will represent a growing market particularly as mobility issues for older drivers are
magnified with the ageing population. However a higher power limit coupled with the
evolving technology will improve the performance of these vehicles to the extent that they
will offer an alternative to the car for some trips. For some older riders, for whom the car is
not an option for either financial or health reasons (i.e. no licence), these vehicles will
provide a primary means of independent mobility.
Reasons why the Australian Regulations need revision
• The lack of clear guidance on how the power output should be measured under the
existing Australian regulations has resulted in some importers deciding not to bring EPAB’s
into Australia because of liability concerns if their vehicles are subsequently
found to exceed the power limits.
• The amendments to legislation in Europe, Canada and the USA is stimulating
technological innovation which is producing lighter E-PAB’s with greater consumer
appeal. The low power limit currently applied to this class of vehicles here means that
Australian’s are denied access to the latest technological advances in E-Bikes. The
extent to which these vehicles are able to offer transport and mobility choices is
therefore restricted.
• E-Bikes have a potentially valuable role to play in the context of sustainable transport
since they could substitute for car trips (when a conventional bicycle would not have
been used). They are particularly relevant to older people where E-PAB’s would enable
them to be active as part of their daily life, increase their mobility, reduce isolation and
improve health. Initial research conducted at Monash University has confirmed that EPAB’s
can still provide health benefits to riders.
• The current approach to regulating these vehicles is inconsistent with the increased use
of Performance Based Standards (PBS) for other vehicle types. Dimensions of a PBS
for E-Bikes could include:
! A requirement that the vehicle be a PAB, requiring active pedal power, to be a
key determinant of the vehicle being classified as a bicycle
! Maximum speed at which the power assistance should cut out
! Weight limits reflecting the momentum of the vehicle and the implications of
that for safety
! Braking capacity may require attention depending on the weight and speed
limits.
iii
Recommendations
• Regulations governing power assistance on bicycles need to be revised in all
Australian States and preferably specified in terms of a performance based standard
• It is desirable that any regulatory change not affect vehicles which are currently
legal and so a pedal cycle to which is attached one or more propulsion motors
having a combined maximum power output not exceeding 200W should continue to
be defined as a bicycle. However, the regulations should be amended to allow for a
higher power limit of 500W for vehicles which are electrically powered provided
that the power assistance cuts out at 30 kph.
! This would be consistent with the new Canadian standard, would sit between
the American and the European regulations and ensure that these vehicles
would not exceed speeds which can be achieved on a conventional bicycle
! The use of the term ‘propelled’ in the definition is important since it can be
interpreted to cover both ‘powered’ and ‘power assisted’ operation
! Vehicles meeting the above limits would continue to be classified as a ‘bicycle’
and require no registration or driver licensing while vehicles which do not meet
the above performance standards would not be classified as ‘bicycles’ and
therefore would be subject to specific regulations
• Additional research is required on issues which could not be covered in depth in
this initial review
! Research similar to Canada’s “Electric Bike 2000 Project” or the European
equivalent (E-tour) should be commissioned to addressing operational issues for
these vehicles in the Australian context and explore the potential health and
mobility impacts of E-Bikes in comparison to conventional bikes.
! Overseas experience with potential pedestrian conflicts on shared use paths and
footpaths should be monitored
! An assessment should be made of the feasibility of introducing a system of
government rebates to stimulate E-bike use. This would involve a closer
examination of the experience in Switzerland, where a rebate on E-bike
purchases is available through the government, and also initiatives in Japan
where solar panels are used for recharging E-bikes. A combination of these
initiatives would be consistent with Government actions in some Australian
states to stimulate use of solar hot water systems and water saving devices
(rainwater or grey water tanks, low flow shower heads etc.) through provision
of rebates on the purchase price of the equipment.
iv
GLOSSARY
E-Bike – a generic term for a bicycle that in addition to pedals has a small electric motor
for propulsion. E-Bikes com in two forms: EAB and EPB.
EAB – Electric Assisted Bicycle - An E-Bike where motor assistance is provided in
proportion to input from the pedals. The rider must pedal for the motor to operate.
EPB – Electric Powered Bicycle - An E-Bike where motor assistance is provided on
command via a switch or lever. It is not necessary to pedal for the motor to operate.
PAB – Power Assisted Bicycle – A generic term for a bicycle that makes use of a small
motor or engine to reduce the effort required by the rider. Can be powered by either an
internal combustion engine (IC-PAB) or an electric motor (E-PAB).
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I
GLOSSARY IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS VI
1. INTRODUCTION 7
2. POWER ASSISTED BICYCLES: TERMINOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY 9
2.1 PRODUCTS AVAILABLE ON THE AUSTRALIAN MARKET 11
3. REGULATION OF POWER ASSISTED BICYCLES 13
3.1 AUSTRALIAN REGULATIONS 13
3.2 OVERSEAS REGULATIONS 15
3.4 SUMMARY 16
4. PRESENT AND FUTURE MARKET 17
4.1 CONSUMER DEMOGRAPHICS AND PRODUCT REACTIONS 17
4.2 OVERSEAS MARKET RESEARCH AND INITIATIVES 19
5. SAFETY AND HEALTH ISSUES 21
5.1 SAFETY ISSUES 21
5.2 HEALTH ISSUES 22
6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 28
BIBLIOGRAPHY 30
APPENDIX 1: STAKEHOLDERS APPROACHED FOR INTERVIEWS 33
APPENDIX 2: USER TESTIMONIALS 35
vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank Rosemarie Spiedel of the Cycling Promotion Fund for the
encouragement to undertake this study and for providing seed funding for the research.
Special thanks goes to Mr Graeme West, the Director of Giant Bicycles Australia, for
loaning the research team two E-Bikes for the duration of the project. We also gratefully
acknowledge the input provided by government and industry representatives who agreed to
be interviewed for this study as well as those individuals including Alan Parker, Anthony
Barton, Steve Smart, Paul Magarey and Alan Jonas who provided feedback and comments
on the draft report.
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
Page 7
1. INTRODUCTION
Cities throughout the world are grappling with the challenge of improving the sustainability
of their transportation systems which have developed to be heavily dependent on the
private motor vehicle. Those same cities face the added challenge of catering for the
mobility needs of an ageing population, many of whom have become accustomed to the
independent mobility provided by the car. Beyond the mobility needs of that older cohort,
there are added issues of health and wellbeing for which maintenance of physical activity is
increasingly seen as a key.
The bicycle has the potential to play an important role in addressing the problems outlined
above. However, the performance of the bicycle, in relation to other modes, depends on the
physical ability of the rider and the rider’s willingness to provide all the energy needed to
reach their destination. The provision of power assistance to the rider therefore has the
potential to expand the role of the bicycle in urban transport. Bicycles which provide some
form of power assistance are available in a variety of models as shown in Figure 1.
The Institute of Transport Studies and the Graduate School of Environmental Science at
Monash University initiated a collaborative research program focussed on power assisted
bicycles, with particular emphasis on those powered by electricity. The research, which has
received initial support from the Cycling Promotion Fund and Giant Bicycles, has been
progressed through a series of student projects in 2003 (Belias, Chung and Macdonald,
2003; Smith 2003). This report has grown out of those initial student projects. It is
important to emphasise that this is an initial, exploratory study. The emphasis has been on
collecting information on current regulations and issues which are relevant to the review of
those regulations.
The research reported here was initiated to provide a contribution to the debate about the
regulation of power assisted bicycles in Australia. The aims of the research were to:
• investigate the current situation relating to power assisted bicycles in
Australia and comparable overseas countries,
• explore the issues of relevance to the framing of regulations covering these
vehicles, and
• identify any actions needed to enable these vehicles to make a larger
contribution to the urban transport task.
The structure of this report is as follows. Chapter 2 reviews the terminology and technology
related to power assisted bicycles. Chapter 3 reviews the current regulation of these
vehicles in Australia and overseas. The present and future market is considered in Chapter
4. Safety and health issues are then canvassed in Chapter 5 before the conclusions and
recommendations of this study are presented in Chapter 6.
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
8
Figure 1 : Examples of Powered/Power Assisted Bicycles
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
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Re: Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
« Reply #1 on: June 27, 2010, 10:19:01 AM »
9
2. POWER ASSISTED BICYCLES: TERMINOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY
It is appropriate to begin by distinguishing between powered bicycles and power assisted
bicycles. On Powered Bicycles (PBs), the engine/motor operates with a switch or throttle
and so provides power assistance without any pedal action. In contrast, on Power Assisted
Bicycles (PAB’s) the power assistance is only provided when the rider is pedalling.
Power Assisted Bicycles (PABs) have been in existence since the beginning of last century
when the Singer Company in Britain began manufacturing motorized back wheels that
could be fitted to existing heavy-duty bicycle frames (Parker, 2002b). These units were
powered by a small 2-stroke engine, similar in concept to modern Internal Combustion
Power-Assisted Bicycles (IC-PABs). Development of lighter models that could be attached
to any bicycle occurred after World War II leading to an increase in their popularity, with
an estimated 15 million of them in use throughout Europe by 1965 (Parker, 1999).
Following this period, the increasing popularity and affordability of motor cars saw a
decline in usage of IC-PABs throughout Europe. At this time there were also a few Electric
PABs (E-Bikes) in use, but the weight and bulk of early batteries and motors, coupled with
a dangerous front wheel drive arrangement meant that they never became popular (Parker,
1999).
The modern E-Bike, originated in Japan in the early 1980s, where the intent seemed to be
to make cycling easier for the elderly. In 1989 Yamaha released a second generation EBike
with a 235W motor connected to electronic torque sensors in the crank. Power was
delivered only when the bicycle was being pedalled and only in direct correlation with the
power exerted by the rider. From these beginnings the world market has expanded,
particularly in Europe and Asia, with about 90 companies now producing E-Bikes with
over 1 million sold between 1997 and 2001 (Parker, 2002a).
Currently the biggest market for E-Bikes exists in countries such as China, India, Vietnam
and Japan which already have a major segment of their transport needs provided by small 2
or 3-wheeled vehicles. By 2001, over 900,000 E-Bikes had been sold in Japan and while
statistics are difficult to obtain for other Asian nations an idea of the potential market is
given by the enormous number of two wheeled IC vehicles (IC assisted bicycles, mopeds
and small motorbikes) produced in Asia each year (about 25 million) (Parker, 2002b).
While factories in Taiwan and China are tooling up to mass-produce E-Bikes for the local
market, it is unlikely these will have a great effect on the Australian market. Though bikes
from this region are very cost competitive, the standards to which they are designed and
built are not usually as high as Australian consumers may expect and might not meet
Australian Design Standards.
The EU, Canada, USA and Japan, while not having the same potential market as greater
Asia, produce high quality bikes and historically are far more influential on Australian
rules and regulations.
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
10
Electric bicycle usage is currently strongly supported within many Asian nations to reduce
automobile usage and exhaust emissions. In Shanghai and Beijing, the Chinese government
won’t issue new licenses for IC-PAB due to their high pollution rate, but rather only for EPABs
(Parker 2002b). The production of E-Bikes within China was forecast by the Bicycle
Industry Information Centre to increase to 500,000 by 2002 and reach 1.5 million in the
near future (Parker 2002b). Since signing the Kyoto Protocol in 2001, Japan has become
interested in schemes to replace the car with E-PABs as a way of reducing greenhouse
emissions (Parker 2002b). The Japanese government is also trialling the use of renewable
energy sources (e.g. solar panels) to recharge the bicycles.
E-Bike components can be split into 4 main groups: bike parts, motors, electrics and
batteries. All of these components have been the focus of a great deal of research and
development, both as they apply to E-Bikes and separately. As the E-Bike currently stands
the motors, electrics and standard bike components are all of a high standard and provide
no real hindrance to the expansion of their market. The batteries however currently pose a
significant technical hurdle. This is where research is being focussed, so that E-Bikes can
reach their full potential.
Batteries have two main impacts on the E-Bike’s ease of use: their significant weight and
the limits they impose on assisted range. These factors are inextricably linked, as the more
energy storage there is (battery capacity/size) the greater the distance it is possible to travel
with power assistance. So it would follow that it would be desirable to have as much
battery capacity as possible. However, increased weight has two major effects. First, it
makes the bikes far more difficult to handle when not under power. This is relevant when
being ridden, since the rider has to exert a lot more effort to propel a heavier E-Bike once
the battery is flat, as well as when putting them onto bike racks or manoeuvring them in
and out of storage. Second, it adds significantly to the inertia of the bike when in use and
therefore adds to the safety risk when the vehicle is involved in a crash. Thus it has been
necessary to find a compromise between these two factors and to date this has not been
done to the total satisfaction of either criterion.
The majority of E-Bikes and DIY kits come standard with a Sealed Lead-Acid (SLA)
battery. These batteries are cheap and reliable and have a long life, but have the major
drawback of the having the lowest energy density (30Wh/kg) of all rechargeable batteries
(Jaycar Electonrics, 2001). This has meant that for most E-Bikes range is limited to 20-
30kms per charge and around 10-12kg (30-40%) of their weight is the battery.
There are several alternatives to SLA batteries on the market at the moment, but most of
them have intrinsic characteristics that make them unsuitable for use with E-Bikes. US Prodrive
offers a kit with a Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) power pack, offering increased
range (an extra 25-30%) and reduced weight (5kg lighter), but these batteries have a
relatively short life span and are quite fragile making them less than ideal for use with EBikes.
Lithium Ion (Li-ion) batteries are currently the most promising energy storage
system, their only drawback being their currently very high cost (3-4 times more than
SLA). These batteries have a similar life span to that of SLA’s, provide better performance
and have an energy density of 140Wh/kg, meaning that they can provide the same range as
current SLA batteries at about 20% of the weight (Jaycar Electronics, 2001).
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
11
Thus it would be possible with a Li-ion battery pack to overcome both the major problems
currently posed by existing energy storage units, doubling the range per charge (to 50-
60km) and still reduce battery weight by 55-60%. For these batteries to have market
appeal, however, the price would need to decrease significantly. This could potentially be
encouraged by increased production and competition, and/or through government
subsidies. Other important areas for technological innovation, which are likely to be
fuelled by the growing market for these vehicles, include systems which recharge the
batteries while riding, perhaps through regenerative braking systems which use some of the
energy dissipated through braking effort to re-charge the battery.
2.1 Products Available on the Australian Market
As part of this study, a number of companies were contacted1 to develop an appreciation of
the products currently offered on the Australian market. The companies contacted as part of
this review had an operating history of between two and four years and many had been
operational in other areas of the bicycle industry prior to introducing E-Bikes to their range.
One company no longer imports E-Bikes as they felt that the market was too small, and
restrictive legislation made it impractical to operate profitably.
The product range varied between distributors and this review focuses on electric power
assistance. The total range is limited in comparison to what is available on the world
market. Most companies currently sell between one and four E-Bike models (bicycles and
tricycles); some companies supplement this range with several scooter models. Do It
Yourself (DIY) kits, imported from the US, Germany, and Asia are popular as they can be
fitted to most existing bike frames, thus allowing the consumer to modify their bicycle to
suit their needs. One popular electric kit currently on the Australian market is the US
designed, US-ProDrive (Figure 2). This provides an average range of 20 - 30km and a
maximum speed of just over 25kph.
Another company rated an E-tricycle as its best seller (see Figure 1), attributing this to its
being a very practical form of transportation, with unrivalled stability, ease of use and a
large carrying basket. It is described as being ideal for elderly riders. This model is
powered by an onboard lead-acid battery of 24 volts and claimed to give an assisted range
of 20-30km on a single charge.
(a) US-ProDrive Kit (b) Kit fitted to bicycle
Figure 2 : US-ProDrive DIY Kit
1 Appendix 1 lists the organisations contacted as part of this study
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
12
E-Bikes range in price from $1,000 to $4,500. The more expensive E-Bikes generally
incorporate more advanced technology, but the features do not vary greatly between the
models.
The distributors all commented that E-Bike maintenance is as simple as that for a
conventional bicycle, as all motor components and batteries are fully enclosed. When faults
occur, generally the whole unit requires replacement. Warranty periods and after care
service varies from company to company. The frame, motor and electronics all have
distinct warranty periods owing to the varying fragility of the components. Most
companies will service bicycles ‘in-house’ although those who sell through retailers expect
the retailer to offer servicing, and will intervene only in the event of a manufacturing fault.
The companies contacted as part of this review were all small in terms of infrastructure and
staff size. A reflection of this is that only three of the six companies which responded had
made sales of more than 2000 units since commencing operations. The uneven distribution
of sales between distributors is heavily influenced by the number and style of E-Bikes
offered.
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
13
3. REGULATION OF POWER ASSISTED BICYCLES
3.1 Australian Regulations
In Australia, an important and overarching piece of legislation is the Australian Vehicle
Standards (1999) essentially regulate the supply of vehicles into the Australian market. Part
2, Section 10, of those standards state that they do not apply to:
a vehicle propelled by a motor with a maximum power output of not over
200 watts.
Importantly, this definition does not distinguish between a powered vehicle or a power
assisted vehicle since the reference is only to the vehicle being propelled by a motor.
In Victoria, vehicles with a motor of less than 200W are classified as a bicycle and
therefore subject to bicycle regulations. As such, the vehicle does not need to be registered
nor the rider licensed. Since no distinction is drawn between a PB and a PAB, any of the
vehicles shown in Figure 3, so long as their motor meets the 200W limit, could be
classified as a bicycle. The definition encompasses a range of vehicles and attachments and
all are currently legislated by the same basic limit of 200W. This includes electric kits that
can be attached to almost any conventional bicycle and a range of powered two wheeled
vehicles including purpose designed E-PABs, small kick-style scooters and large scooterstyled
mopeds.
Conventional Bicycle E-PAB Electric Scooter
Figure 3 : Vehicles classified as bicycles under the 200W rule in Victoria
Regulations governing the use of these vehicles are not consistent across Australian states2:
• Northern Territory: differentiates between bicycles and scooters requiring that to
be classified an E-Bike the cycle must have functioning pedals.
• Queensland: regulations stipulate, “a PAB may not be ridden on a bicycle path or
shared footway when the power source is operating”.
• Tasmania: unrestricted cycling on shared pathways, unless indicated.
2 See the Reference List (pp.26) for a comprehensive listing of web sites accessed to obtain information on
current regulations.
Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia

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Re: Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
« Reply #2 on: June 27, 2010, 10:22:56 AM »
Ahhhhhh

bugger it,

its too big to post..  Read the PDF.

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Offline Leslie

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Re: Encouraging E-bike use: the need for regulatory reform in Australia
« Reply #3 on: June 27, 2010, 10:29:04 AM »
Quote
• It is desirable that any regulatory change not affect vehicles which are currently
legal and so a pedal cycle to which is attached one or more propulsion motors
having a combined maximum power output not exceeding 200W should continue to
be defined as a bicycle. However, the regulations should be amended to allow for a
higher power limit of 500W for vehicles which are electrically powered provi

I like this bit :D

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